4 METHODS: 45/180, 80/260, base turn, & the racetrack.
ENTRY: The 45/180, 80/260, and base turns must be entered from a track that is within + 30° of the outbound reversal track. For base turns where the + 30° entry sector does not include the reciprocal of the inbound track, the entry sector is expanded to include it. If the arrival track is not within the entry sector, the pilot must request an alignment maneuver. (Future approaches will have a holding pattern that the controller will expect the pilot to use to align the a/c for the approach if the a/c is not favorably aligned.) (I/183)
If established in an arrival holding pattern that does not position the aircraft within the entry sector, the pilot must:
Request an alignment maneuver, or
Request descent in holding and the straight-in approach. (I/183)
Entry procedures for a racetrack are the same as for holding procedures with several exceptions: (I/187)
Teardrop offset is limited to 30°
The teardrop entry is limited to 1 1/2 min. wings level on the teardrop track, after which you are to turn to a heading parallel to the outbound track for the remainder of the outbound time.
If the outbound time is 1 minute, the time on the teardrop shall be 1 minute also.
Regardless of which entry procedure is used, do not return directly to the facility without first intercepting the inbound track.
TIMING: When outbound abeam/after completing the outbound turn, if abeam position cannot be determined. (I/187)
At the IAF - when abeam or past the IAF and on parallel or intercept hdg.
Past the IAF - be established on a segment of the IAP. (I/187)
MISC.: Max. a/s during reversal maneuvers - 250 KIAS. Before reaching the IAF, reduce to maneuvering speed. (I/187)


CIRCLING APPR: (Need ceiling & vis.- use PV.) (F/8-40)
Pilots should NOT plan to circle from a prec. appr. (I/143)
From an ASR: give the controller your a/c category. (I/143)
2.3 NM obstruction clearance for category D a/c. (I/153)
Cat E a/c airspeed: 166 knots or greater.(FLIP GP/2-3)
If weather permits, fly the approach at an altitude higher than the circling MDA, up to the normal traffic pattern altitude. (I/143)
Minimums: MDA will be as published. If minimums are not published by category, the MDA will be as published, but not lower than the airport elev. + 600'/2 mi. vis. (A/6-14)
Descent from MDA is permitted when the aircraft is in a position to execute a normal landing. Then descend as necessary to place the a/c on a normal glidepath to the landing runway. (I/143)
Flaps LANDING - during the turn to final; reduce a/s to approach speed. (D/2-72)
Missed approach - If you lose visual reference while circling to land, follow the missed approach specified for the approach procedure just flown, unless otherwise directed. An initial climbing turn toward the landing runway will assure obstacle clearance. (I/147)


ATC will not issue clearance for a visual approach until the pilot has the airport or the preceding a/c in sight. If the pilot has the airport in sight, but not the preceding a/c, ATC may clear the a/c for a visual approach (ATC retains separation/wake separation responsibility). (I/130)
Clearance for a visual approach is not authorization to fly an overhead (360°) pattern. (I/130)
Complete the Before Landing Checklist prior to 600' AGL on final. *(T)
NDB Approaches are restricted to day/VFR. NDBs are approved for use in IMC, but only for alignment to a precision final approach.


Controlled Airspace(Class E):

Below 10,000' - 3 SM./ 500'below, 1000'above, 2000' horiz.
At or Above 10,000' - 5 SM./ 1000' below, 1000' above, 1 SM. horiz.
Class B Airspace: 3 SM/clear of clouds


Do not descend below a descent restrictive altitude (minimum, mandatory, or not recommended) if the CDI indicates full scale deflection until receiving localizer guidance.
If on final approach, the ILS/LOC approach must be discontinued if the localizer course becomes unreliable, or any time full scale deflection of the CDI occurs.
Do not descend below localizer minimums if the aircraft is more than one dot below or two dots above the glide slope. If the glide slope is recaptured to within this tolerance, descent may be continued to DH.
When conducting autopilot coupled operations, advise ATC as soon as practical, but not later than the FAF.


For back course localizer approaches, set the published front course in the course selector window. (I/126)
Disregard all glideslope signal indications unless a glideslope is specified in the procedure. (I/58)
The middle marker may be an accurate means of identifying the MAP on certain localizer approaches provided it is coincident with the published localizer MAP. The middle marker may not be used as the sole means of identifying the MAP. Another source such as DME or timing must verify the MAP in addition to the middle marker. (I/126)


Where a side-step procedure is published, aircraft may make an instrument approach to a runway or airport and then visually maneuver to land on an alternate runway specified in the procedure.
Do not begin the side-step maneuver prior to the FAF nor until the side-step runway is in sight.
Do not descend below side-step MDA until in a position to place the a/c on a normal glidepath.
If you lose visual reference - follow the missed approach procedure for the approach procedure just flown. (An initial climbing turn toward the landing runway will ensure obstruction clearance.)


VDP - a defined point on the final approach course of a non-prec appr, from which a normal descent of 3° from the MDA to the touchdown point may be made, provided visual reference with the runway environment is established. VDP's are not a mandatory part of the procedure. (I/96,97)
The MAP associated with a precision approach is determined by the pilot in terms of a DH and not a specific point along the final approach course. (I/126)
6° = 1 NM on the 10 NM arc. (I/80)
Mach - 2 = lead point to an arc (30°bank) (I/79)
CDI error (max) - + 4° (I/98)
Alt. error (max) + 75 ft.(of P, CP alts and field elev.). (I/85,97)
Standard rate turns cover 360° in 2 min. (I/18,103)
Refer to the rate of sink limitations when landing with a gross wt greater than 257,500#, or fuel is above 75,000#. (D/2-79, 5-2)
T & go ldgs: 2/hr max. at 257,500# GW /#75,000 fuel. (D/2-79)
If configuration is delayed, do not allow A/S to decrease below Vmfr + 20. (D/2-71)
For a no-flap appr/landing, do not allow a/s to decrease below app + 20 until inbound to the FAF. (D/2-71)
Set QNE (29.92) when operating at, climbing through, or operating above the transition altitude. (I/149)
Do not exceed 200 KIAS at or below 2,500'AGL within 4 NM of the primary airport of a Class C or Class D airspace area, unless authorized or required by ATC, or required in the aircraft tech order. (F/5-19)


Attempt contact with the controlling agency if no transmissions are received for approx. 1 min. while being vectored to final, 15 sec while on final for an ASR, 5 sec on final for a PAR.
If you experience lost communications, you are automatically cleared to fly any published approach unless the controller previously issued a specific lost communications approach.
3° glideslope VVI = (Groundspeed X 10)/2
2 1/2° glideslope VVI = [Groundspeed X (10/2)] - 100


Visibility, and, if required, ceiling minimums (e.g., circling approach) will be as published.
PAR: RVR no lower than 24 or 1/2 mile; DH based on HAT of no less than 200'.
Circling Approach: If not published by category, mins. will be as published, but not less than published airport elev. + 600'/ 2 mi. 
If full flight instrumentation is not available and operational: 300/3/4 (RVR 40)


PAR: complete differential pressure instruments, compass systems, and attitude indicators in the pilot and copilot positions.
ILS: same as for PAR + dual flight displays (or one flight director + ADI repeat). Need two ILS receivers.
CAT II ILS: dual independent compass systems, VSFI's (excluding mach; D/2-54) & attitude indicators, dual flight displays (copilot may select ADI repeat during a coupled appr) operable AWLS (APPR ARM light at pilot copilot positions), operable radar alt., & rain removal if required.
*A published straight-in PRECISION approach or enroute descent to such a PRECISION approach may be started only if existing weather is reported at, or above, the visibility minimums published for the approach to be flown. If a circling or a non precision approach is to be flown, the reported weather must be at, or above, both the published ceiling and vis. minimums. Use RVR, RVV, or PV - in that order. For circling approaches use prevailing visibility. (FCBs, F/8-40,41)


If advised wx is below mins. after starting an en route descent or approach, comply with AFI 11-202. The AC may elect to continue the approach to the missed approach point based on fuel reserves (including missed approach fuel (4.0)), suitable alternates, etc.
EXCEPTION: Category II ILS approaches will not be continued if weather is reported below Category II minimums.


Plan all missions to avoid areas of forecast or known severe weather including icing or severe turbulence. (A/6-7)


1. FL 230 and above: 20 NM
2. Below FL 230: 10 NM
3. Do not fly directly above thunderstorms (within 2000')
4. Avoid the rain shaft & cloud base of thunderstorms and cumulonimbus clouds by 10 NM
5. Avoid thunderstorms visually, by airborne radar, or by specific request of a ground-based radar with a wx painting capability. When relying exclusively on ground-based radar for weather avoidance and the ground controller is unable to provide avoidance instructions, attempt to remain VMC by: (1) changing routing, (2) diverting to an alternate,(3) declaring an emergency and requesting priority assistance if unable to stay VMC.
Takeoff and Landing (may be made if):
The thunderstorm or CB's and gust front, if present, can be avoided.
The distance from the storm is increased ASAP after T.O. to meet the 10/20 NM criteria
The a/c is not flown below thunderstorms, CB's, or through the rain shaft associated with these clouds.
A missed approach course from the missed approach point is available which will provide separation similar to that for departure.


If actual groundspeed differs by 15 knots or more than reference groundspeed, apply headwind or tailwind procedures.
Decreasing headwind example: Approach speed = 125 KCAS; reference groundspeed = 115 knots actual g/s = 95 KCAS. Accelerate to 145 knots to maintain 115 knots.
Decreasing tailwind example: Approach speed = 125 KCAS; reference groundspeed = 115 knots; Actual g/s = 160 knots. Maintain approach speed of 125 knots and monitor actual groundspeed.
WARNING:  If flap limit airspeed will be exceeded by maintaining reference groundspeed, the approach should be abandoned.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that a go-around is often the pilot's best course of action.
Landing in gusty winds: the final Approach speed should be increased by the reported gust increment, not to exceed 10 knots. Resetting the A/S marker is not required.
RED LIGHT: Comes on if the present wind component and the predicted runway component (from FSAS data, LDG pg.) differ by more than 15 knots.
WARNING BEEP: Activated whenever actual groundspeed is 15 knots below reference groundspeed.
Mode 1 - for excessive rate of descent
Mode 4 - unsafe configuration; can inhibit with MODE 4 INHIB switch.
Mode 5 - glideslope deviation; inhibited with the GPWS TEST switch. Resets automatically during takeoff or G/A. (D/1-242-243)

LANDING (A/5-3,4)

Minimum runway length for landing : Computed landing distance from charts + RVR/(vis) additions, but in no case lower than 6000 ft/1830m or 5000'/1525m with a waiver from NAF.
NOTE: Normally, compute landing distance with no reverse thrust.
EXCEPTION: When operational necessity dictates, andreported RVR/Vis is > 40/(3/4), ldg dist. may be computed using2-eng. reverse thrust.
If the RVR/(Vis) is > 40/(3/4): need computed landing distance + 500'.
If the RVR/(Vis) is > 24/(1/2): but < 40/(3/4), you need computed landing distance + 1000'.
If the RVR/(Vis) is < 24/(1/2): need computed landing distance + 2000'.
NOTE: If runway available for landing is less than that required above, use ground roll + 1000' if reported weather is a tor above circling minimums. Obtain NAF approval and modify approach and flare to touch down in the first 500'.
The aircraft should not be landed with ice in excess of 1/2" on an outer wing section because lateral control of the aircraft will deteriorate. If significant ice accumulations exist, a controllability check should be performed to establish the proper approach speed. (D/7-14)
If the runway is wet or icy, takeoff or landing shall not be made in the caution zone of the crosswind chart. (P/3-19)
Aircraft with complete spoiler deactivation should not be operated into airfields with less than 7000' of runway available. (M/6)